Clarifying Confusion, Part 2

As a follow-up the Clarifying Confusion post from April 2017, I am sharing sample presentations for introducing target clusters in our Clarifying Confusion unit for our intervention for 6th – 9th graders.  See April post for a better description of the standard for this unit and the targets for instruction. 

I see this unit as the heart of our work.  Our standards for this intervention are built around the tenets of reciprocal teaching (Palinscar & Brown, 1984).  When I work with students at the secondary and postsecondary levels, they express that among their greatest frustrations is not knowing what to do when they don’t understand what they’ve read or not realizing they do not understand until the end of the text or during a test.  The purpose of the standard for this unit, as mentioned in a previous post, is to help students develop a mental framework for how to identify confusion and resolve it. 

I initially present the process with an analogy for diagnosing and curing an illness.
I do not think of my students as ill, nor do I teach from a deficit perspective, but developing an analogy helps students consider the whole process, before engaging with the parts of how to repair their own confusion.  

Some teachers encourage students to come up with their own analogy for the process. This may be especially useful for students to record and represent their learning at the end of the unit and solidify the process as they continue to develop their clarifying skills independently beyond the intervention classroom.

So, when I introduce this sequence, I focus on three questions.  How do I know I am
confused? What is causing my confusion? How do I repair my confusion?  Between the explicit instruction for each question,  a great deal of practice and application must happen through authentic reading experiences.  For my students, this typically happens through explicit modeling and guided strategy practice, individual conferring, think alouds, and reciprocal teaching.  

Again, the following presentations merely introduce the concepts and vocabulary needed for metacognitive discussions about monitoring for comprehension and repairing confusion.

If you have questions about any of these resources, please comment or email helpteensread@gmail.com.

References for Further Study: 

Carter, C. (1997). Why reciprocal teaching? Educational leadership. (54)6: 64-68.

Palinscar, A.S., and Brown, A.L. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension: Fostering and monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction (1) 2: 111-175.

Tovani, C. (2000). I read it, but I don’t get it. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.

Levels of Understanding Poster

We use this Levels of Understanding Target Poster in our secondary literacy (Strategic Reading) classes to help students pre-assess their level of understanding of a literacy strategy (pre-instruction), and reevaluate their understanding upon completion of instruction.  The question prompts for each level are intended to ignite students’ ability to verbalize what they know and what they still need to know or be able to do.

The complexity of the thinking for this process falls under the metacognitive level of the Marzano taxonomy under Monitoring Accuracy:  “The student can determine how accurate their understanding of knowledge is and defend their judgment.”  

Here is a sample plan for how to use this resource:

  1. Prior to engaging in new learning, students reflect on the learning target (or standard/objective) for the day’s instruction and rate their current understanding.  We have students write the learning target (or standard/objective) on their exit slip form (not included here).
  2. At the close of an instruction segment, students reconsider and reflect on how their level of understanding has developed. They again choose a rating from the target.
  3. In writing, students explain and justify their rating choice using reflection prompts prepared for each level.

My collaborator, a talented former graphic designer turned educator, and I are now beginning the process of adding our literacy intervention and general instructional resources on Teachers Pay Teachers.  This free resource is our first offering.  If you are interested in particular types of resources for literacy intervention, please let us know.  It is probably in our vault somewhere.