Effective Interventionists

I have met many women and men who wholeheartedly want to be effective literacy teachers.  They want, as much as anyone can, to impact the lives of adolescent readers. In our district, those teachers accept the belief that an excellent education is built on literacy as a civil right.   When I am asked how to get an effective class or program started for struggling adolescent readers, the inquiry is typically about structure, standards, and resources, understandably. I also acknowledge that even the best research-based structure is subordinate to consistent building-wide and district-wide support for fidelity of that structure.  Beyond that need, the greatest factor for success in the individual classroom is an effective literacy educator that believes in all students, responds to the needs of the whole student, remains knowledgeable on effective literacy practice, and builds a classroom structure that facilitates success for all students.

Although this might be a great place to write a literature review citing sources that validate my choice of essential elements, I will instead share my knowledge and beliefs through the lens of my education and my experience with hundreds of real students and dozens of teachers.  Like many reading this, I have spent years, dedicated my life actually, to the work of helping teens read well, both in private and public contexts. I value data and spend a lot of time attempting to make sense of what the data says about what happens in actual classrooms.  I am genuinely saddened that neither my best intentions nor my best efforts have made a significant impact on the system as a whole. I have seen the impact of my work and the work of my fellow literacy educators at the building level, and most certainly at the individual class/teacher level. Students have experienced long-term benefit in these contexts.  However, even as a coach that supports middle and secondary literacy intervention in a large district, with a literacy model I developed and implemented over that past 5 years, I must admit I have yet to see our literacy work impact the system in a sustainable way. Our work is unique, innovative and research-based, but the moving parts are many and difficult to effectively support. Yet we continue to press forward, with our best resource: effective literacy educators.

In spite of my obvious frustration with system change and the state of affairs of literacy in our nation, I must continue to believe in the power of the individual teacher, site-based management, & effective instructional coaching.  I would argue that one of the reasons systems change is so difficult is individual teachers, and frankly, individual students, are undervalued. Again, a blog for another time. With that said, I have bore witness to excellent practice in many classrooms.  I don’t pop in and out, I sit through classes, typically many times with the same teachers, and I notice some commonalities among our most effective literacy interventionists.

Effective literacy teachers believe In all students.  Above all else, effective teachers function from a belief system that accepts that all students can learn and grow as readers, writers, and thinkers.  This is first on my list and of utmost importance. When a teen has spent years battling against reading challenges, he doesn’t believe in himself anymore. These students also don’t believe that anyone can help them change their reading stars. Frankly, many educators have fallen victim to the belief that some students are just not able to read well.  “The good news is that we now have an essential research base demonstrating that virtually every child could be reading grade level by the end of first grade” (Routman, 2014). In a reality where that is not happening, the individual teacher must believe that the potential to achieve and grow still lives within each adolescent.

Effective literacy teachers employ responsive teaching practices.  Of course, this happens as a result of believing in all students.  It also requires a clear understanding of the strengths and challenges of each student.  This is where gaining and maintaining a strong knowledge of literacy development and pedagogy is important.  At the center of all of this is an awareness of the cultural knowledge, experiences, and beliefs students bring to a learning community.  The curriculum and the accepted methodology for instruction are important, however knowledgeable, reflective, relationship-driven educators can be effective with students through nearly any curriculum and any model of instruction. (This is where you may want to refer to my disclaimer for this blog. This is my strongly-held opinion.)

Effective, Consistent, Safe, Fair Classroom Structure.  The reality of teaching adolescent struggling readers is that they are not all that excited to take another spin at becoming a “proficient reader.”  Depending on the district and the structure of the intervention in that district K-12, they may have experienced a great many instructional attempts to fashion them into grade-level readers.  In some cases, those attempts, according to my discussions with students, made them all the more certain that reading is a boring waste of time. More than that, these students have undoubtedly experienced intervention attempts within classroom structures where the teacher’s credibility and clarity were constantly in question (Fisher, Frey, & Hattie, 2016).  The culture of the classroom, dependent on teacher direction and modeling, must acknowledge mistakes and confusion as part of the path to growth. Creating a safe space for students who have not felt safe enough to take risks, may well be the greatest benefit of thoughtful classroom structures. In safe, consistent, responsive environments students begin to absorb the positive culture of the classroom, respect the teacher’s expertise, and believe that maybe, just maybe change is possible.

Are you seeking to develop a curriculum that changes the literacy stars for your students? A solid data-driven, research-based curriculum is essential, but the impact of an effective educator is paramount. Have I missed some fundamental elements of an effective literacy educator? Share your thoughts? Consider your practice and the practice of those effective, impactful teachers in your sphere. Students deserve dedicated, responsive educators that always seek to improve their practice and who care deeply about each individual student. What does student evidence of impactful instruction look like to you? How are we using the evidence of our students’ success or failure to enhance our practice to serve students better?

Turning Reluctance into Resilience

GUEST POST  by  Dr. Cheryl J. Wright

As effective educators, we strive to meet students where they are. But what if where they are is “I don’t care”? Rather than conceding that students can’t do better, it is important that we

  1. Make connections to build on students’ interests and strengths.
  2. Take time to clearly define crucial teaching content and create achievable goals.
  3. Teach intrapersonal skills and real-life applications of lessons.
  4. Provide effective support while emphasizing student effort and acknowledging progress.

Here are some ways these tenets might play out in the classroom, especially when students struggle to muster their motivation.

Cultivating the Will to Succeed

Taking time to know students and welcome them to the classroom fosters not only a positive culture but a productive one. Students perceive a safe environment where asking questions, sharing ideas, and linking learning to prior knowledge are the norm. When establishing classroom culture, it is beneficial to “focus on what students need to succeed and build it into the learning and social environment every day” (Jensen, 2016, p. 111).

How This Might Look in Practice

  • Inspire hope: Greet with a smile, give high fives, and embed genuine affirmations (e.g., “It’s good to see you.” “Nice job getting here on time.” “Welcome back.” “You nailed it!”). Specify how learning is beneficial in students’ lives and be receptive to their thoughts and feedback. Integrate examples into your teaching of how individuals overcome adversity. Ultimately, interactions with students should serve as stepping-stones for trust and growth.
  • Express enthusiasm: Exhibit a caring disposition for students and excitement about the topics you teach. Convey instruction with positive energy and purpose. Students will be more likely to ask questions and pursue learning.
  • Be approachable: Have clear and consistent expectations for both learning and behavior while also promoting civility, equity, and respect. Nurture students’ curiosity for learning by guiding them to discover their talents and view situations from different perspectives.
  • Embrace teachable moments: Encourage students to reflect on learning experiences and tell them that their voices matter. Analyze what is going well, what adjustments are needed, and how different methods can get better results. Look at drawbacks as opportunities to solve problems creatively and build confidence.

Fostering Essential Connections

How often, despite our best intentions, do we assume we know what motivates learners? Do we take time to genuinely know students or explore their attitudes about school? These questions call to mind a middle school student I once met. He was sometimes sheltered from challenging work out of a misplaced concern that pushing him to think critically would be too frustrating for him. Basic lessons that required mere regurgitation of facts conveyed low expectations and insulted his potential. When I asked him, “What influences you to do well in school?” he said, without hesitation, “When teachers don’t give me the easy stuff!”

Educators who motivate clearly define objectives and provide opportunities for “learning by doing.” Feedback and multiple opportunities for practice help students understand expectations, monitor progress, and foster a can-do attitude.

How This Might Look in Practice

  • Focus on success and set achievable goals.
  • Clearly identify the topic and what students will learn.
  • Use multiple, kid-friendly ways to explain learning goals so that students purposefully engage in the learning process.
  • Connect lessons to what is relevant to students, including real-life examples and analogies to foster deep understanding.
  • Pinpoint crucial information; too much at one time can be overwhelming and confusing.

Not Academics Alone

Competency in our content areas alone does not inspire effort. We must be sensitive to the fact that students may have experienced failure many times before coming to us. Students can be apprehensive that teachers will talk to them in a condescending manner or won’t value them. A savvy teacher knows how to convey instruction in ways that give and garner respect.

How This Might Look in Practice

  • Share a personal experience.
  • Acknowledge when you get it wrong: “Sorry, this is my fault.”
  • Say, “I have no doubt we can get this done.”
  • Encourage self-confidence: “We’ll take it one step at a time.” “You’ve got this!”
  • Invite feedback: “What are your thoughts?” “How might this be done differently?”
  • Follow the 2×10 strategy and “invest 2 uninterrupted, undivided minutes a day for 10 consecutive days with the sole purpose of relationship building” (Mendler, 2000, p. 51).

Making a Difference

Unmotivated students can challenge any teacher. However, consistently framing each day as an opportunity to get stronger, and giving students the supports to do so, can encourage them to persevere. Over time, reluctance shifts to resilience, and students’ excitement for learning reawakens. What could be more rewarding than giving struggling students hope and a chance to hold their heads a little higher?

References

Jensen, E. (2016). Poor students, rich teaching: Mindsets for change. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

Mendler, A. N. (2000). Motivating students who don’t care: Successful techniques for educators. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

Cheryl J. Wright is an instructional coach in Kansas City for Kansas Public Schools.

Originally Posted in ASCD Express, Vol. 12, No. 23. Copyright 2017 by ASCD. All rights reserved.  Reposted with permission from the author.

Growth Mindset Intervention

“Everybody is a genius. But if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid.”          ~Albert Einstein

Lately, I see more memes and posters with this quote than ever.  While I agree with the sentiment of not judging intellect based on weaknesses rather than strengths, I think it tells our students that they can acknowledge something is a weakness and call it done. If a proverbial fish out of water truly had a need to climb a tree, and the fish believed he could determine or learn a way to accomplish this task, he would indeed get up that tree somehow, even if by adaptation.  However, our kids aren’t fish. 

When students enter any intervention class, but for our purposes, a reading intervention class, they feel like a fish out of water.  They don’t need to learn to climb a tree.  They need to get back in the water a lot more and perfect skills they need for survival. 

“I am not good a good reader.”
“I don’t like to read.”
“Reading isn’t my thing.”
“I am good at math, not reading.”

Readers-in-need are “fish” who’ve been allowed out of water too long, and they no longer know how to swim effectively in the new, more aggressive pond (Tired of this analogy, yet?)   Many of our intervention students had one or both of two types of experiences, and these will be defined too simplistically.  First, they experienced a developmental challenge with reading early and found themselves in pull-out interventions that did not have actual reading at the heart of the process. As a result, they were in a perpetual gap.  Second, as they got older, they weren’t required to read much for learning or found ways to avoid it, (and possibly suffered from the first situation), so they aren’t convinced of the value of challenge in reading.  They now lack the skills to be successful.  One outcome of those two situations, is that students often think they can’t read well, that it can’t be changed, and they don’t want to keep engaging in risky attempts that make them look foolish or feel inadequate.  Some pretty outrageous classroom behaviors are born from these beliefs.

The majority of our reading intervention students suffer from what Dr. Carol Dweck calls a fixed mindset.   All too often, in the name of support, students are told isn’t their fault that they struggle (and it probably isn’t)  and they can’t really do much about it because that’s how they’re built.  The fallacy being supported, mostly through actions more than words, is that the students can’t learn to be as good at reading (or wri
ting) at the same level as their more successful peers.  According to Dr. Dweck:

“Growth-mindset teachers tell their students the truth (about where they are) and then give them the tools to close the gap (where they CAN be)…Not just lip service to the idea that children can learn, but a deep desire to reach in and ignite the mind in every child.”

Depending more on Dr. Dweck to expand a point,  I would like to share the following coaching anecdote from her 2006 edition, Mindset: The New Psychology of Success: How We Can Learn to Fulfill Our Potential (2006).  In her chapter on the impact of growth mindset parenting, teaching and coaching, she shares a comparison between two coaches (Bobby Knight & John Wooden) and how their coaching style impacted player growth, especially players that weren’t perceived to have the highest levels of talent. Sometimes it’s our fixed mindset that might be the obstacle.  Consider the following (insert readers for players):

“Don’t you have to go with your talented players and give less to the second stringers? [John Wooden] didn’t play all players equally, but he gave to all players equally.  For example when he recruited another player the same year as Bill Walton, he told him that he would play very little in actual games because of Walton. But he promised him, “By the time you graduate you’ll get a pro contract.  You’ll be that good.”  By his third year, the player was giving Bill Walton all he could handle in practice.  And when he turned pro, he was named rookie of the year in his league.”

Are we teachers with a growth mindset, for ourselves and our students? Do we coach/teach all students as if at the end of the day our goal is to see them be as successful as any other student?   Do we believe that we can grow all students:  the high, the low, and the poorly behaved?  Do our students believe that it is within their power to have all they can image out of their literacy lives? If we believe it, we can help them believe it.  They have the power to change their stars even if they gave up hope a long time ago.  We just have to reignite the hope.  The recipe: a strong relationship with a motivating, interested adult, an understanding and belief in their own powers to grow and learn, and the skills required to develop.

Let’s clarify the terms.  The definitions of fixed and growth mindsets wer
e established through the aforementioned research of Dr. Carol Dweck, but the working definitions below are taken from
The Growth Mindset Coach: A Teacher’s Month-by-month Handbook for Empowering Students to Achieve (Brock & Hundley, 2016):

Fixed Mindset: “The belief that we’re born with fixed amount of intelligence and ability.  People operating in the fixed mindset are prone to avoiding challenges and failures, thereby robbing themselves of a life rich in experiences and learning.” As a result, individuals with this mindset may seek constant praise for the skills they believe they possess innately (extrinsically motivated).
Growth Mindset: “The belief that with practice, perseverance, and effort, people have limitless potential to learn and grow.  People operating in the growth mindset tackle challenges with aplomb, unconcerned with making mistakes or being embarrassed, focusing instead on the process of growth.”  As a result, individuals with this mindset tend to be rewarded by the growth challenge and overcoming obstacles (intrinsically motivated).   

It is not my intention to tout another series of buzzwords, but this concept applies
heavily to our students.  I do not visit a classroom where I do not hear concern over motivation. In our district, our intervention model reinforces a belief that without
motivation and a positive self-perception/self-efficacy it is difficult for secondary students to close the gap in their literacy skills.  Much of our students’ motivation is zapped by a fixed mindset that has been reinforced by years of inadequate progress.

Ok, how do we do it?  Well, just like anything else that really works for students, it depends on the individual.   Part of our district intervention, is helping students learn who they are as learners so they can leverage that knowledge by identifying their strengths to repair their weaknesses.   This is impossible if students don’t think that kind of power is even attainable. The first thing they may need to know about themselves is their current mindset, and how that affects their success. 

So I challenge you to do some research of your own.  Intentional effort spent on relevant challenge is something our kids deserve to experience and need to truly thrive. In our district we often repeat the phrase, “literacy is a civil right.”  I believe that, but more than that the skills to change and grow and overcome obstacles are life skills school SHOULD be providing all students as well.

There are some initial resources to consider.  I started with the 2006 edition of Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, but there is a newer edition published in 2016.  I have intervened for teen readers for most of two decades, and I the book kept me rapt. The concepts are so central to working with underperforming students.  The second edition provides some new research and new insights about aspects of mindset that weren’t being used effectively.   If the book is too big a bite during the school year, start with Dr. Dweck’s Ted Talk: “The Power of Believing You Can Improve”  and an article from Ed Week, “Carol Dweck Revisits the Growth Mindset.”  Even if you have seen a lot of general information and posters about growth mindset, it requires some authentic research to internalize its breadth.  

For a practical support for practical application in the classroom, I recommend The Growth Mindset Coach: A Teacher’s Month-by-Month Handbook for Empowering Students Achieve by Annie Brock and Heather Hundley (2016)

If you are already engaging in this work with students, let us know what is working.  We have to be in this together.