Reciprocal teaching is a collaborative structure used to help students engage in essential proficient reader actions with the support of a peer group. Many years ago, before my reading specialist education, the desire that fueled my summer research reading was to find a method to support non-readers, reluctant readers, and struggling readers in my content classes (ELA & Social Studies), or according the NAEP, about 64% of 8th graders and 63% of 12th graders in 2013. I started reading anything about best practices that would help adolescents read strategically in my class. The data around reciprocal teaching grabbed my attention and has held it for most of my career. My education since those days has only reinforced my desire to find the most effective method for implementing reciprocal teaching in content classes, as well as in my intervention classes. I have used many variations to structure reciprocal teaching over the years. Most recently the process below is bringing the strongest results to-date. I embed re-telling into the process, at the risk of complicating the collaborative structure, but the results have been positive. Below you will find the general process I currently use, although please note that I adjust and tweak as needed based the struggles and strengths I observed as I monitored student progress.
Sample framework for reciprocal teaching session (with retelling embedded):
- Activate prior knowledge on the topic. The topic should be chosen to engage and challenge the readers. A variety of options exist, including but not limited to: KWL, Connect-Extend-Challenge, Question Formulation Technique.
- Groups can all meet at once or meet in a rotation as part of a station structure. The READER will read until he/she reaches a “STOP” break in the document. I keep text to a manageable length and add 3-4 “STOP” breaks in the text.
- The RETELLER, who has annotated for essential vocabulary, will use those essential terms to retell the main ideas. Other students are encouraged to help adjust the retelling if they feel the author’s meaning is altered or main ideas were excluded.
- The CLARIFIER, who has been annotating for words and concepts that were confusing, will offer those to the group for discussion and clarification. If background knowledge of the group is not sufficient, a discussion on and application of fix-up strategies should ensue.
- The QUESTIONER, who has annotated for important ideas and inferences, asks explicit and implicit questions to check for understanding. This is how I use the questioning element. It is an extension of the Question Answer Relationship strategy and encourages students to focus on what is important in the text. This is not the only way to use this questioning element.
- This process will be repeated at each of the 3-4 stops in the text.
- The READER, who is also the SUMMARIZER, will develop a summary independently or with the collaboration of the group. If completing the summary independently is the option, the final summary is shared with the group to discuss if anything should be added or subtracted. Another options requires all members of the group to prepare a summary independently and share out for similar feedback.
NOTE: This process will develop over time. Add each strategy to the process as you provide direct instruction, modeling and practice. You can start with reading, retelling, and prediction/purpose setting, and then add the other strategies as they are introduced. Students can complete one strategy for the whole article or switch after each stop. Be intentional about assigning roles to encourage practice and growth where needed.
If you would like more comprehensive guidance on how to implement reciprocal teaching in an intervention class or a content class, I recommend the thorough support that comes from Reciprocal Teaching at Work: Powerful Strategies and Lessons for Improving Reading Comprehension by Lori D. Oczkus (2nd Edition, 2010). In this text, Oczkus includes the research that supports the validity and long-term effectiveness of this instructional practice (also see Palincsar & Brown, 1984). Additionally, in Visible Learning for Literacy, Grades K-12, Implementing the Practices that Work Best to Accelerate Student Learning (Fisher, Frey, & Hattie, 2016) reciprocal teaching is identified with an effect size of 0.74. The authors note that the evidence supporting the effectiveness of reciprocal teaching is broad and that “researchers have found it to be effective with students with disabilities, English learners, and bilingual students.” It is especially useful as an intervention strategy when used with fidelity.
When I say this comprehension strategy should be used with fidelity, I do not mean that there is one classroom room process that works for all in every situation. As noted earlier, organizing the use of the skills collaboratively and authentically can happen in a variety of ways. However, there are some common mutations that alter success:
- Focusing on engagement versus monitoring comprehension as a primary goal/objective.
- Altering the use of the strategies in unison. Strategies should be explicitly introduced and modeled individually, but the long-term development is built on using the strategies in unison, as they would authentically be used by a proficient reader.
- Lack of specificity around the processes of questioning and clarifying strategies.
- Not holding students to fidelity of each strategy as students collaborate to make meaning in reciprocal teaching groups.
- Too much scaffolding (lack of gradual release by teacher or ownership by students) that prevents students from working towards independence.
- No scaffolding. This involves not having a clear instructional process proven to support learning strategy development.
If you are using a structure for reciprocal teaching that is encouraging authentic student conversations and building natural application of comprehension strategies, please comment about how your process works in your classroom. I enjoy hearing how teachers at all levels and in every content areas are helping students make meaning from challenging text.